Wise Insights

Ontario Business Corporations Act

PART I
DEFINITIONS, INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION

Definitions and interpretation

1. (1) In this Act,

“affairs” means the relationships among a corporation, its affiliates and the shareholders, directors and officers of such bodies corporate but does not include the business carried on by such bodies corporate; (“affaires internes”)

“affiliate” means an affiliated body corporate within the meaning of subsection (4); (“membre du même groupe”)

“articles” means the original or restated articles of incorporation, articles of amendment, articles of amalgamation, articles of arrangement, articles of continuance, articles of dissolution, articles of reorganization, articles of revival, letters patent, supplementary letters patent, a special Act and any other instrument by which a corporation is incorporated; (“statuts”)

“associate”, where used to indicate a relationship with any person, means,

(a) any body corporate of which the person beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, voting securities carrying more than 10 per cent of the voting rights attached to all voting securities of the body corporate for the time being outstanding,

(b) any partner of that person,

(c) any trust or estate in which the person has a substantial beneficial interest or as to which the person serves as trustee or in a similar capacity,

(d) any relative of the person, including the person’s spouse, where the relative has the same home as the person, or

(e) any relative of the spouse of the person where the relative has the same home as the person; (“personne qui a un lien”)

“auditor” includes a partnership of auditors; (“vérificateur”)

“beneficial interest” or “beneficial ownership” includes ownership through a trustee, legal representative, agent or other intermediary and, in the case of a security, includes the interest of an entitlement holder, as defined in the Securities Transfer Act, 2006, with respect to that security, but does not include the interest of an entitlement holder that is a securities intermediary, as defined in the Securities Transfer Act, 2006, that has established a security entitlement, as defined in the Securities Transfer Act, 2006, in favour of its entitlement holder with respect to that security; (“intérêt bénéficiaire”, “propriété bénéficiaire”)

“body corporate” means any body corporate with or without share capital and whether or not it is a corporation to which this Act applies; (“personne morale”)

“certified copy” means,

(a) in relation to a document of a corporation, a copy of the document certified to be a true copy by an officer thereof,

(b) in relation to a document issued by a court, a copy of the document certified to be a true copy under the seal of the court and signed by the registrar thereof,

(c) in relation to a document in the custody of the Director, a copy of the document certified to be a true copy by the Director and signed by the Director or by such officer of the Ministry as is designated by the regulations; (“copie certifiée conforme”)

“Commission” means the Ontario Securities Commission; (“Commission”)

“corporation” means a body corporate with share capital to which this Act applies; (“société”, “société par actions”)

“corporation number” means the number assigned by the Director to a corporation in accordance with subsection 8(1) and “number” in relation to a corporation means the corporation number of that corporation; (“numéro de la société”, “numéro”)

“court” means the Superior Court of Justice; (“tribunal”)

“day” means a clear day and a period of days shall be deemed to commence the day following the event that began the period and shall be deemed to terminate at midnight of the last day of the period except that if the last day of the period falls on a Sunday or holiday the period shall terminate at midnight of the day next following that is not a Sunday or holiday; (“jour”)

“debt obligation” means a bond, debenture, note or other similar obligation or guarantee of such an obligation of a body corporate, whether secured or unsecured; (“titre de créance”)

“Director” means the Director appointed under section 278; (“directeur”)

“director” means a person occupying the position of director of a corporation by whatever name called, and “directors” and “board of directors” include a single director; (“administrateur”)

“electronic signature” means an identifying mark or process that is,

(a) created or communicated using telephonic or electronic means,

(b) attached to or associated with a document or other information, and

(c) made or adopted by a person to associate the person with the document or other information, as the case may be; (“signature électronique”)

“endorse” includes imprinting a stamp on the face of articles or other document sent to the Director; (“apposer”)

“financial statement” means a financial statement referred to in section 154; (“état financier”)

“incorporator” means a person who signs articles of incorporation; (“fondateur”)

“individual” means a natural person, but does not include a partnership, unincorporated association, unincorporated syndicate, unincorporated organization, trust, or a natural person in his or her capacity as trustee, executor, administrator or other legal representative; (“particulier”)

“interim financial statement” means a financial statement referred to in section 160; (“état financier périodique”)

“liability” includes a debt of a corporation arising under section 36, subsection 185(29) or clause 248(3)(f) or (g); (“passif”)

“Minister” means the Minister of Consumer and Business Services or such other member of the Executive Council to whom the administration of this Act may be assigned; (“ministre”)

“Ministry” means the Ministry of the Minister; (“ministère”)

“non-resident corporation” means a corporation incorporated in Canada before the 27th day of April, 1965, and that is not deemed to be resident in Canada for the purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada) by subsection 250(4) of that Act; (“société non résidente”)

“number name” means the name of a corporation that consists only of its corporation number followed by the word “Ontario” and one of the words or abbreviations provided for in subsection 10(1); (“dénomination sociale numérique”)

“offering corporation” means a corporation that is offering its securities to the public within the meaning of subsection (6) and that is not the subject of an order of the Commission deeming it to have ceased to be offering its securities to the public; (“société faisant appel au public”)

“officer” means an officer designated under section 133 and includes the chair of the board of directors, a vice-chair of the board of directors, the president, a vice-president, the secretary, an assistant secretary, the treasurer, an assistant treasurer and the general manager of a corporation, and any other individual designated an officer of a corporation by by-law or by resolution of the directors or any other individual who performs functions for a corporation similar to those normally performed by an individual occupying any such office; (“dirigeant”)

“ordinary resolution” means a resolution that is submitted to a meeting of the shareholders of a corporation and passed, with or without amendment, at the meeting by at least a majority of the votes cast; (“résolution ordinaire”)

“person” includes an individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, unincorporated association, unincorporated syndicate, unincorporated organization, trust, body corporate, and a natural person in his or her capacity as trustee, executor, administrator, or other legal representative; (“personne”)

“personal representative”, where used with reference to holding shares in that capacity, means an executor, administrator, estate trustee, guardian, tutor, trustee, receiver or liquidator or the curator, guardian for property or attorney under a continuing power of attorney with authority for a person who is mentally incapable of managing his or her property; (“ayant droit”)

“prescribed” means prescribed by the regulations; (“prescrit”)

“redeemable share” means a share issued by a corporation,

(a) that the corporation may purchase or redeem upon the demand of the corporation, or

(b) that the corporation is required by its articles to purchase or redeem at a specified time or otherwise upon the demand of a shareholder; (“action rachetable”)

“registered form” means registered form as defined in the Securities Transfer Act, 2006; (“nominatif”)

“registered office” means the office of a corporation located at the address specified in its articles or in the notice most recently filed by the corporation under subsection 14(3); (“siège social”)

“regulations” means the regulations made under this Act; (“règlements”)

“related person”, where used to indicate a relationship with any person, means,

(a) any spouse, son or daughter of that person,

(b) any relative of the person or of the person’s spouse, other than an individual referred to in clause (a), who has the same home as the person, or

(c) any body corporate of which the person and any of the persons referred to in clause (a) or (b) or the partner or employer of the person, or any combination, beneficially own, directly or indirectly, voting securities carrying more than 50 per cent of the voting rights attached to all voting securities of the body corporate for the time being outstanding; (“personne liée”)

“resident Canadian” means an individual who is,

(a) a Canadian citizen ordinarily resident in Canada,

(b) a Canadian citizen not ordinarily resident in Canada who is a member of a prescribed class of persons, or

(c) a permanent resident within the meaning of the Immigration Act (Canada) and ordinarily resident in Canada; (“résident canadien”)

“security” means a share of any class or series of shares or a debt obligation of a body corporate; (“valeur mobilière”)

“security certificate” means a certificate evidencing a security; (“certificat de valeur mobilière”)

“security interest” means an interest in or charge upon the property of a body corporate by way of mortgage, hypothec, pledge or otherwise, to secure payment of a debt or performance of any other obligation of the body corporate; (“sûreté”)

“send” includes deliver or mail; (“envoyer”)

“senior officer” means,

(a) the chair of the board of directors, a vice-chair of the board of directors, the president, a vice-president, the secretary, the treasurer or the general manager of a corporation or any other individual who performs functions for a corporation similar to those normally performed by an individual occupying any such office, and

(b) each of the five highest paid employees of a corporation, including any individual referred to in clause (a); (“cadre dirigeant”)

“series”, in relation to shares, means a division of a class of shares; (“série”)

“special resolution” means a resolution that is,

(a) submitted to a special meeting of the shareholders of a corporation duly called for the purpose of considering the resolution and passed, with or without amendment, at the meeting by at least two-thirds of the votes cast, or

(b) consented to in writing by each shareholder of the corporation entitled to vote at such a meeting or the shareholder’s attorney authorized in writing; (“résolution spéciale”)

“spouse” means a person to whom the person is married or with whom the person is living in a conjugal relationship outside marriage; (“conjoint”)

“telephonic or electronic means” means telephone calls or messages, facsimile messages, electronic mail, transmission of data or information through automated touch-tone telephone systems, transmission of data or information through computer networks, any other similar means or any other prescribed means; (“voie téléphonique ou électronique”)

“unanimous shareholder agreement” means an agreement described in subsection 108(2) or a declaration of a shareholder described in subsection 108 (3); (“convention unanime des actionnaires”)

“uncertificated security” means an uncertificated security as defined in the Securities Transfer Act, 2006; (“valeur mobilière sans certificat”)

“voting security” means any security other than a debt obligation of a body corporate carrying a voting right either under all circumstances or under some circumstances that have occurred and are continuing; (“valeur mobilière avec droit de vote”)

“warrant” means any certificate or other document issued by a corporation as evidence of conversion privileges or options or rights to acquire securities of the corporation.

Do you own your business name?

Great question. The answer lies somewhere between maybe and maybe not. If you are not careful, your business name may be a liability instead of an asset.

You registered your business name (trade name) in Ontario and paid $60 for five years. The Ontario government issued you a master business licence and a Business Identification Number.